Monday, May 25, 2020

St. Thomas on the Nature of Human Action - 5620 Words

INTRODUCTION In moral theory, understanding the concept of human action is significant. While contemporary moral philosophers tend to address these subjects as discrete topics of study, St. Thomas Aquinas’s treatment of them yields a bracing, comprehensive view of the moral life. Though at times it is not necessary for someone to be a trained moralist just to determine whether an act is good or bad, in some cases, this task can be challenging. Essential to identifying a correct moral action is recognizing what in this action is relevant to making this determination. The following essay will focus on the role of the reason and will to human, voluntariness, a feature that distinguishes human acts from acts of a different kind, and†¦show more content†¦After considering the matter, the man decides that making a financial contribution would be more sensible for him than doing volunteer work. He sets out to find a suitable recipient for donation. On a community bulletin board, he sees two requests for assistance posted: one from a drug rehabilitation centre and another from a scholarship fund for schools in impoverished countries. After reading more carefully, the man discovers that the campaign for the scholarship fund is a special drive for elite donors willing to give L10,000 or more. Since such a sum is beyond his resources, he discounts a gift to this initiative. He judges, however, that a donation to the rehabilitation centre is suitable: it would meet his purpose admirably and any further means necessary to make the donation could easily be arranged. The man recognizes that the end of helping the needy is now practically possible for him, for even if no other suitable means can be found, he can always give to the rehab centre. Realizing he can commit to what is practically possible, the man resolve then and there to help the needy. But he also continues his search for additional charities in case another appeals to him more. After asking some friends, he d iscovers another potential recipientShow MoreRelated A Philosophical Criticism of Augustine and Aquinas Essay1548 Words   |  7 PagesPhilosophical Criticism of Augustine and Aquinas: The Relationship of Soul and Body       The relationship of the human soul and physical body is a topic that has mystified philosophers, scholars, scientists, and mankind as a whole for centuries. Human beings, who are always concerned about their place as individuals in this world, have attempted to determine the precise nature or state of the physical form. They are concerned for their well-being in this earthly environment, as well as theirRead MoreAnalogy And Participation : Analogy1201 Words   |  5 Pagesof general logic, the theory of predication, which has only to be applied to the notable case of being. St. Thomas, on the other hand, generally introduces it as a mode of logical predication, the mode that is neither univocal nor equivocal but in between (analogical). Focusing on St. Thomas’ philosophy, this section will determine how analogy can bring us to know God analogously. St. Thomas’ emphasis is on the analogy of being, a principle that makes for a better understanding of analogy, w henRead MoreThe Lifelong Goal Of Saint Thomas Aquinas1692 Words   |  7 PagesRyan Comolli Study Of St. Thomas Aquinas Research Paper 11/23/2014 The lifelong goal of Saint Thomas Aquinas was to clearly elaborate the independence of philosophy and theology, but at the same time show their symbiotic relationship with each other. Throughout his life Aquinas was known as a theologian but many of his works carry strong philosophical undertones as well. The beauty of theology is it can enlighten us through its leap of faith. Philosophy was required to precede theology. Read MoreNichomachean Ethics And Thomas Aquinas986 Words   |  4 Pagesrelationship between justice, good, and happiness, specifically in Aristotle’s â€Å"Nichomachean Ethics† and Thomas Aquinas’ â€Å"On the Nature of Law.† And by examining these texts I wish to argue that even though they lived nearly 1000 years apart, Aristotle and St. Thomas Aquinas share the same overall view of justice, but they each follow different paths to reach that justice. Both Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas believe in the pursuit of happiness as a measure of justice and a desirable chief end of lifeRead MoreThe Virtue Of Justice By Thomas Aquinas1489 Words   |  6 Pagesbe administered by legal limits alone. Both subjective virtues and objective moral precepts are necessity for its persistent success. Thomas’ moral theory meets the current need for ethics that exceeds the legal realm by connecting the ideas of virtue and justice in a resourceful way. This paper discusses the virtue of justice in general, according to St. Thomas Aquinas’ doctrine drawing mainly on the Summa Theologiae. To efficiently understand what the virtue of justice is, the first thing thisRead MoreCan We Prove God Exists? Essay562 Words   |  3 PagesPhilosophers, whether they are atheists, or believers have always been eager to discuss the existence of God. Some philosophers, such as St Thomas Aquinas, and St Anselm, believe that we have proven that God ex ists through our senses, logic, and experience. Others such as Soren Kierkegaard, and Holbach, feel that we will never have the answer to this question due to our human limitations, and reason. The believer tends to rely on faith for his belief, and claim they do not need proof in order to believeRead MoreHow St. Thomas Aquinas s Teachings Have Affected Me1181 Words   |  5 PagesHow St. Thomas Aquinas’s Teachings have Affected Me St. Thomas Aquinas was one of the most profound and prolific writers of his time, and his teachings I feel continue to resonate today. In fact, one of his teachers, St. Albert the Great, once said of him, â€Å"We call this young man a dumb ox, but his bellowing in doctrine will one day resound throughout the world.† This only understates the effect this one man has had through the legacy he left behind. His works continue to inspire many, myself includedRead MoreProposed Seven Philosophers On The Existence Of God And Their Development Of These Ideas1413 Words   |  6 Pagesmy choice topic. The seven philosophers are as follows: (1) Socrates, (2) Plato, (3) Aristotle, (4) Francis Bacon, (5) St. Augustine, (6) Thomas Aquinas, and (7) Rene DesCartes. The specific three I want to focus on being; St. Augustine, Thomas Aquinas and Rene Descartes. Lastly, I will proceed to relate their ideas on the existence of God and their development of these ideas. St. Augustine s epistemology is rationalization. In his argument for the existence of God, he is referring to varying degreesRead MoreCapital Punishment : Light Of The Natural Law898 Words   |  4 Pagespunishment by using the natural law theory set forth by Saint Thomas Aquinas and his greatest work, â€Å"Summa Theologiae†. Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 1274) was a Dominican catholic priest. Aquinas can be considered to be one of the most influential philosophers and theologian of the Scholastic period, and he had major impacts in the development of the Western theology and philosophy. Aristotle heavily influenced Aquinas on the matters related to nature. Within Aquinas’ large body of work, the â€Å"Summa Theologiae†Read MoreSaint Thomas Aquinas Essay1591 Words   |  7 PagesSaint Thomas Aquinas I chose to write about Saint Thomas Aquinas because I have heard of his life and found it interesting. There was also a large pool of knowledge to research from, about Saint Thomas Aquinas. I also knew he is called Doctor of the church and I wanted to learn more about that. I was interested in Saint Thomas Aquinas because he was misunderstood by his peers and was also called the Dumb Ox. I wanted to understand how someone can be so misunderstood stood and be

Friday, May 15, 2020

Juvenile Offenders And Adult Court - 1502 Words

The dilemma of whether or not to transfer juveniles to adult court has been a major topic, for many years, in the United States. Since 1899, judges have had the option to transfer juveniles to adult court. The major factor for transferring juveniles to adult court since then has been the seriousness of the offense. That being said, juveniles only make up a small portion of violent crimes in the United States. Only 16 percent of juvenile offenders in 2008 were arrested for violent crimes (Champion,2008). The problem is the determination of whether the crime is serious enough to be waived and transferred to adult court. Almost every state has statutory judicial waiver provisions, which grant juvenile judges the authority to transfer†¦show more content†¦In Florida, in 1996, Dona Bishop also preformed a study, which found that juveniles that were transferred were not less likely to reoffend, but had higher rates of recidivism. The findings suggested that transfers made little difference in deterring youths from reoffending. Adult processing of youths in criminal court actually increases recidivism rather than having any incapacitative effects on crime control and community protection. When it comes to transferring a juvenile to adult court age does play a major factor in most states, but on the other hand there are a lot of states that do not have a minimum age for transferring juveniles to adult court(Champion 2008). In most states children can be held accountable for their actions between the ages of thirteen and fifteen. Tennessee, for example, is one of the states does not have a minimum age for transfer law. Juveniles ages 6, 10, and 16 share similiarites and differences when in comes to transfers. One similarity they share is that in some states depending on their crime it would not matter what age they were which could lead to the transfer of the juvenile to adult court. The difference is that some states if you are a certain age like 6 or 10 yo u could not be tried as and adult noShow MoreRelatedThe Juvenile Court : An Adult Offender991 Words   |  4 PagesThe Juvenile Court was established in 1899, under the Juvenile Court Act. The Act was established under three principles; children at a certain age are too young to be held accountable for their actions, they are not mentally competent, and they are more likely to be rehabilitated than an adult offender. However, in the past years juvenile are committing more violent crimes that suggest they should be tried in criminal courts rather than juvenile courts. It is my belief that if a child under theRead MoreJuvenile Offenders And The Adult Courts For Trial1102 Words   |  5 Pagesother states, has provisions, provided for in the state laws, for the transfer of juvenile offenders to the adult courts for trial. The youth court has to follow the procedures, which are outlined in the statute, to include the minimum age of a juvenile, who is to be transferred to the adult cou rts, and the specific crimes for which such a transfer may take place. While I recognize, as the United States Supreme Court did in Roper v. Simmons, (2005), that children are immature, and easily led astrayRead MoreThe Origins Of Juvenile Justice1385 Words   |  6 Pagesof juvenile justice, from the house of refuge to the juvenile programs of today. Ans: In the early nineteenth century, the idea of reforming youth offenders took root in the United States. The House of Refuge in New York, which opened in 1824, was the first juvenile house of reform in the United States. This was the first attempt to house juvenile offenders in a separate facility and other States, like Maryland, would soon follow suit. The idea was not to punish juveniles offenders as adults butRead MoreJuvenile Transfer For Adult Courts : A Look At The Prototypes For Dangerousness, Sophistication Maturity, And Amenability925 Words   |  4 PagesJuvenile Transfer to Adult Courts: A Look at the Prototypes for Dangerousness, Sophistication-Maturity, and Amenability to Treatment through a Legal Lens http://psycnet.apa.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/journals/law/8/4/373.html In transferring, a juvenile to adult court there is a certain amount of criteria that needs to be followed. The first criteria is if the juvenile is dangerous to the community, the maturity of the offender, and the psychological findings of the offender, it helps to determineRead MorePros And Cons Of Juvenile Offenders1024 Words   |  5 PagesJuvenile Offenders or Adult Criminals? The act of participating in a crime by a minor is considered juvenile delinquency. This criminal act may be punished by many different means, designed specifically to deal with those who are under the statutory age of majority, which is the threshold of adulthood in law. However, many people argue that the severity of the juvenile prosecution system isnt high enough to order proper punishment. Therefore, juvenile offenders should be tried under adult laws.Read MoreJuvenile Courts Essay891 Words   |  4 PagesSerious crimes such as murder, burglary and rape have raised questions as to whether the young offenders should face severe punitive treatment or the normal punitive measures in juvenile courts. Many would prefer the juveniles given harsh punishment in order to discourage other young people from engaging in similar activities and to serve as a lesson to these particular offenders. However, results from previous studies indicate such punitive measures were neither successful nor morally acceptableRead MoreEssay on Ramifications of the Juvenile Justice Waiver1537 Words   |  7 PagesSocial workers in the court room play an major role in helping to decide whether or not a child should be charged as an adult for committing a crime while a minor. A minor being sent to juvenile court does not necessarily mean that the minor will be tried as an juvenile. It is also the responsibility of the court to determine if the minor should stay in juvenile court of be moved into adult criminal court. A social work assigned to the minor as well as the defense attorney, prosecutor, and judgeRead MoreThe Effects Of Charging Juveniles Of Adults1689 Words   |  7 Pagescan we possibly try a juvenile as an adult when juveniles are proven to have diminished impulse control? This paper will discuss the history of charging juveniles of adults, discuss the issues that make this practice wrong while negating opposing arguments, and explain the various consequences that come with charging juvenile offenders as adults. When the United States was first established as an independent country, there was no such thing as â€Å"family court† or even the juvenile justice system. ThereforeRead MoreThe Abolition Of The Juvenile Justice System1748 Words   |  7 PagesIn Canada, the juvenile court was established as a tribunal having the sole jurisdiction to hear, process as well as pass judgments for illegal behaviour that are committed by youths. This is a court system that fully distinguishes youths from adults as far as crime is concerned where their misconduct is labeled as delinquent acts rather than crime (Barry, 1987, p. 476). Youth are presumed to have less understanding of social norms and they are less aware of the long-term consequences of their behaviourRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography On Juvenile Offenders950 Words   |  4 PagesBibliography 1. JUVENILE TRANSFER TO ADULT COURTS A Look at the Prototypes for Dangerousness, Sophistication-Maturity, and Amenability to Treatment Through A Legal Lens http://psycnet.apa.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/journals/law/8/4/373.html In transferring, a juvenile to adult court there is a certain amount of criteria that needs to be followed. The first criteria is if the juvenile is dangerous to the community, the maturity of the offender, and the psychology findings of the offender, it helps to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

To What Extent Was Augustus s Achievement Of Power A...

1. To what extent was Augustus achievement of power a continuation of the phenomenon we have been examining throughout this course? How was Augustus different? By the time of his death in AD 14, what had changed since the epoch of Scipio Aemilianus? To change an empire from a Republic to a Monarchy, is in itself a great achievement, but to be that one man that successfully changes the way of old to the original form of state is an amazing fete. The will to achieve this, and the desire must be great and you must truly be remarkable, although in saying that, having your forefathers pave the way, assist in reaching that goal. This is what Augustus achieved, he became greatest man in Rome, the highest achievement one might endeavour, outdoing his forefathers. He played the game of Roman politics against some of the greatest minds, brilliantly and shaped what is now known as the â€Å"Great Roman Empire†. Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian hereinafter referred to â€Å"Augustus†, was given the title of imperium by age of 19, to gain this, he amassed a private army and marched on the Senate in Revenge for his adopted father’s murder. Augustus developed a peaceful and cultural Ancient Rome . In contrast, both Caesar and Sulla before him, were appointed to dictator under the Lex Valeria (Valerian law) , both had ultimate goals of monarchy, but where Caesar, used the people to ascertain if this would be accepted , Sulla ruled with an iron fist. It was Sulla, who ultimately paved theShow MoreRelatedContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words   |  846 Pagesways of improving it. Although always appealing to his economic understandings, he has been open to a wide variety of other ideas, recognizing their intellectual strengths and capabilities rather than making artificial distinctions between what is acceptable and what is not. He also has contributed widely to the accounting literature, taking forward the British tradition of economic theorizing in financial accounting as well as being a constant source of creative thinking in the management accounting

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Capitus Letter to Bento   Essay Example For Students

Capitus Letter to Bento    Essay For days I have been debating whether or not to write you this letter. I have yet to recall any other situation in which I have encountered such a confused state of mind. This predicament so to speak is most bewildering. You should remember, Bento, what seems like eternity ago when we were children, I always knew the right time and place for everything, and I was a master at impromptu acting. Perhaps my flair for decisiveness only ever worked when dealing with other people. All my wits seem to run dry and my charm is never up to par when I am dealing with you, Bento. You truly are my vice. Surprisingly, I am writing this letter on the windowsill while peering out onto the open streets of Switzerland. You never really did take any liking into my standing by the window, and I have always made a mental note not to do so. However, the mere act of doing so immediately sends currents up and down my spine. I really do miss you so Bento, please come and visit me sometime. I become increasingly lonely and longing for your companionship as the years go by. Please do not accuse me of being oversensitive, but is it only a product of my imagination that you have been avoiding me of late? It has been a year, five months and thirteen days since I have seen your face, but your letters have become increasingly curt and dry. I understand that a career as a lawyer must have its times when one cannot be everywhere and everyone at once. Therefore I have taken upon myself to give you free passes and occasions where I readily accept one-word answers and lack of depth in letters. However, your latest letters have been most brief, and my excuse for you being an important and busy man is losing its effect on me. I do hope it is not still the issue with Escobar that is troubling you after all this time. Dear Bento, you are simply being childish whenever you openly or fleetingly accuse me of unfaithfulness! The very thought of going behind your back to be with anyone else but you revolts me, I beg of you to keep that in mind dear, for I love you and you only, not just for being the father of my child, but for being my lifelong companion and loving angel Oh how I miss you so! The other day while I was walking down the road, I happened to notice a man not similar in countenance to you, but was one who carried an air very similar to yours when he walked. Do forgive me as I confess I watched the man walk on until he was lost in the distance. Heaven forbid that you might think me unfaithful! I swear that I only looked at him while picturing you in his place, the face that I have not seen in years, but shall always be etched into my heart. One thing I wish you would never forget is that I do truly love you Bento. Always have, always will. I have loved you ever since we were children: the day I scratched Bento + Capitolina onto the wall, the first time you combed my hair, and the first time we kissed Nor shall I seize loving you Bento, my angel, my loving husband and doting companion of many years. Cant we put our differences aside and end this separation? I feel as if it is not only tearing apart my heart, but our marriage as well. Our little boy Ezequiel asks of you all the time. He runs home from school everyday hoping to find his beloved father in the study. It breaks my heart whenever I see him coming to me, crestfallen, and anxious for your return. Bento, I cannot find more excuses to postpone your visit, and you should have no reason not to come, if even it is only for the boys sake. You will see, he has grown into a handsome young fellow. I have enclosed a sketch that I did in my free time, and I do hope it is a good resemblance. The other day he said the most intelligent thing! I also promised that he will be the one to tell his father when he gets here, as he also thinks it is an ample demonstration of his intellect. 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I have heard you have already made a trip, but why havent I seen you? Surely you arent ignoring me on purpose? Bento, please. I do hope we can reconcile and put our differences aside

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Dna Transcription, Translation Quiz Study Guide Essay Example

Dna Transcription, Translation Quiz Study Guide Paper Study Guide 3/1/11 1. Describe the three parts of a nucleotide and how they bond to form a nucleotide. The three parts of a necleotide are a carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. The carbon sugars bond to the phosphate groups by covalent bonds while the nitrogenous base bonds with it’s compliment by hydrogen bonds. 2. Summarize the role of covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds in the structure of DNA. The role of covalent and hydrogen are as follows. ydrogen bonds, being easy to break, allow the DNA to break so that copies can be made. Whereas covalent bonds keep the sugar and phosphate together, which allows proper placement and structure. 3. Relate the role of the base pairing rules to the structure of DNA. The bases in a strand of DNA relate to the base pairing rule due to the combination of GC and AT, make equal strand, that is held together by a hydrogen base. 4. What is the primary function of DNA? What is DNA long chains of? The primary function of DNA is to code for information. DNA consists of long chains of amino acids. 5. State the names of the nitrogenous bases using purines and pyrimidines . The bases in a strand of DNA relate to the base pairing rule due to the combination of GC and AT, make equal strand, that is held together by a hydrogen base. 6. Explain Chargaff’s rule of base-pairing. Chargaff observed that the percentage of adenine equals the percentage of thymine, and the percentage of cytosine equals that if guanine in the DNA of a variety of organisms. So being opposites, they attract. A to T and C to G. 7. We will write a custom essay sample on Dna Transcription, Translation Quiz Study Guide specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Dna Transcription, Translation Quiz Study Guide specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Dna Transcription, Translation Quiz Study Guide specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Show how dehydration synthesis (condensation reaction) bonds occur at 2,3 and 5 prime carbons of sugar. Monomers join together to form polymers by removing water to form covalent bonds. It takes OH from sugar on the 5th carbon and takes H from phosphate group to kick off water and form covalent bond. 8. Explain how the DNA double helix is formed using 3’-5’ linkages, anti-parallel strands, complementary base pairing and hydrogen bonds. As the DNA strands separate, free nucleotide monomers from hydrogen bonds with the exposed nitrogenous bases by the process of complementary base pairing. Also one side called the leading strand when reproducing goes from 3’ to 5’, but the lagging strand due to anti parallel strands has to go from 5’-3’ this is another factor in the double helix. 9. Understand the importance of the enzymes responsible for DNA replication. The role of helicases , and the role of poylmerases are as follows: polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each of the original strand of DNA, as well as replicating, and reparing. Helicases, on the other hand, separate the DNA strands, breaking the hydogen bonds between the complementary nitrogenous bases. 0. When and where does the process occur? What is the significance of DNA replication? In the nucleus for the purpose of repairing the body. 11. Explain semi-conservative replication and how it related to our outside simulation. DNA is a semi-conservative process because it uses half of the original DNA strand, and a new, freshly replicated stand. 12. Explain transcription. creatin g a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA 13. Where does it occur? What is involved in the process? Transcription occurs in a the cells nucleus. 14. Given a genetic code- be able to find amino acids based on the chart. Will do 🙂 15. Given a DNA strand, be able to find complementary strand, the mRNA to it, and the tRNA to the mRNA. Will do as well 🙂 16. During translation- what components must be aligned for the process to happen? Where does this occur? Why? Each of the 20 amino acids must be aligned with their corresponding codons. It occurs in the ribosome just as the strand is being ready to replicate to allow the correct amino acid to attach and align with the correct codon. 17. What are the different types of RNA? Messenger RNA, Ribosomal RNA, and Transer RNA. 18. What are the differences between DNA and RNA? In DNA the A matches with a T and a G matches with a C, but in RNA goes from A to a U and G to C. Also RNA is in short one sided strands and DNA is in a double sided double helix long strand. 19. How is DNA changed into RNA? Why is it important for this process to occur? RNA Helicase attaches to the promoter and seperates the DNA in one section. Then the polymarase RNA comes and matches up with the DNA (AU)( GC). 0. How is DNA related to how proteins are made? Proteins are created from the messages the DNA send out in the form of RNA. Then the RNA is turned into a protein using amino acid chain that is made in the ribosome. 21. Explain what enzymes are significant to transcription. RNA polymerase and also DNA polymerase 22. Explain the process of translation. In translation, messenger RNA produced by transcription is decoded by the ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide, that will later fold into an active protein

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

cleopatra at cydnus essays

cleopatra at cydnus essays Cleopatras presence at the river of Cydnus left an outstanding effect on the common people of Egypt. All men and boys could not help but be attracted to her. Cleopatras beauty and wealth are told to be of great prosperity. When Cleopatra was near, everything was said to seem more beautiful than before, yet the setting was still incomparable to that beauty of her own. Her simple presence would change the mood of any person and leave such a memorable feeling of beauty to whatever place she would come across. When the commoners of Egypt first saw Cleopatras barge entering the docks of Cydnus, they gawked at such splendiferous items as the large purple sails, and the oars of silver. Those purple sails were told to have made the winds lovesick with them. The oars moved to the tune of flutes, which made the water which they beat to follow faster. Cleopatra herself left the most striking appearance out of all that the barge contained. Her beauty is described to have beggard all description. Items such as her cloth-of gold tissue and her delicate cheeks contributed to her remarkable beauty. The effects of Cleopatras presence at the river of Cydnus were a very large amount of attention, especially from the men and their boys. They could not help but to look at such a marvelous beauty. The legendary Marc Antony was even said to have gazed in her direction. Cleopatra was said to have cast her people out upon her. Such a rare Egyptian Cleopatra was. Cleopatras arrival at Cydnus had stopped all work everything was suddenly about her and her only nothing else mattered. This one woman alone changed all of her surroundings, with simply her presence. Such an incredible feat could only be dreamed about in those times, as well as those of our own. Truly, Cleopatra was a very remarkable and highly admired rule...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Drug Companies Monopolies, Profits and Ethics Essay

Drug Companies Monopolies, Profits and Ethics - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that in this present era, consumers are forced to spend a huge amount of money for buying prescribed and brand-name drugs. This is because all big pharmaceutical companies are allowed to charge whatever they want from the consumers. These companies possess the patent rights due to which they can easily stop the competition in the market and can set the price at its highest level. The drug companies’ monopolies refer to the situation where big companies are controlling the sale of the brand-name drugs. These drugs are becoming the most expensive component of the health care expenses. According to the research, Americans are now spending more than $500 billion annually to buy prescription drugs. These monopolies can be categorized as the government made monopolies. Actually, whenever the big pharmaceutical giant makes a new drug, it applies to the government to possess the patent right. And after getting the patent, the company gets th e right to become the sole seller of that drug for a specific time period. The researcher states that this allows companies to charge maximum prices for the patented drug and, as a result, the company can generate immense profit. These higher prices enable companies to recover its R&D cost for that particular product and also allow companies to focus on further research. But due to this monopoly, consumers have to pay a large amount of money for buying that product.... The most common price increase was related to the three types of drugs including anti-infective, cardiovascular and central nervous system drugs (Hoskins, 2012). Patents make monopoly in drug companies Patents are intellectual property rights and this is granted by the government to the company for the purpose of preventing others to copy its new invention. In the drug industry, the patent is given to the brand-name drug companies to stop competitors from selling, making or importing that particular drug. These types of restriction cause monopoly in the drug industry as few companies are controlling the sale of the drugs. This also leads to higher prices due to decreased competition. Pharmaceutical companies can easily take patent right for 20 years based on different aspects of innovative drugs. The World Health Organization program which was based on essential drugs indicated that patented drugs can only be marketed under the proprietor’s brand and this leads to more monopol ies which increase price pressure on the consumers and results in generating higher profits for the drug industries (Elliot et al., ?2002). Drugs are available at lower prices in developing countries Developing countries and underdeveloped economies make similar expensive medicines with generic or alternative sources. The major reason is that the purchasing power of the consumer in these areas is very low and they cannot afford high-priced medicine. The prices of these drugs are much lesser than the original one. Moreover, they can produce the same drug with such ingredients that are not healthy but are cheap. Sometimes, they find out local herbal ingredients to make similar medicines. These medicines give relief to patients for a very short time period (Angell?, 2004). They can also import